German practicality: Bauhaus style in the interior
The Bauhaus originated a hundred years ago, revolutionizing the design world. New forms, new materials, and, most importantly, new ideas inspired artists, sculptors, and architects to transform the surrounding reality through art and industry. The face of the Bauhaus is the cosmically strict face of the new age. The future that became the present. Let’s find out how this multi-faceted and deeply philosophical style was formed and whether its elements will find a place in a modern interior.
The history of the Bauhaus style begins in 1919 in Weimar. It was a school of construction and construction, and its first Director was Walter Gropius. The words that became the ideological basis of the style belong to him: “an artist is the highest degree of a craftsman”.
5 KEY MISTAKES IN THE INTERIOR
Based on communication with the designers of the Lanskaya shopping complex, we have prepared for you five key errors in the interior and ways to fix them.
The teachers invited by Gropius were real “stars”: the art of stained glass was taught by Paul Klee, Lionel Feininger led a class of edged woodcuts, the sculptor Gerhard Max – a class of ceramics, and Lothar Schreiner taught scenography.
The understanding of color and composition, the students learned from leading architects and avant-garde artists such as Wassily Kandinsky, Johannes Itten, Moholy-Nagy.
Walter Gropius, first Director
The school became a kind of cauldron of creativity, an experimental laboratory in which craft turned into high art.
Functionality, ease of production, geometric aesthetics-the Bauhaus style is recognizable in any work, whether it is a teapot, furniture set or architectural complex.
After experiencing the peak of creativity in Dessau, changing several Directors, in 1933, under pressure from the anti-modern Nazi regime, the Bauhaus closed its doors.
The first and last Directors, Gropius and MIS emigrated to America, where they seriously influenced the urban appearance of the giant cities of Chicago and new York, someone settled in Israel (the “White city”, built in the Bauhaus style – under the protection of UNESCO).
After the end of the war, the carriers of Bauhaus ideas scattered throughout Europe and Germany, in all areas of industry, continuing to create minimalistic masterpieces.
Mechanical, cosmic coldness becomes a symbol of style. The Bauhaus shows open metal frames in furniture, grilles of panoramic Windows, sharp lines in collections of porcelain and metal kitchen utensils.
How do I know the Bauhaus? If the chair looks like a robot, it’s a Bauhaus.
Basic shapes, basic colors
The Bauhaus is inspired by the Kandinsky and Mondrian palette, which means that the design uses three basic colors (plus black and white). Strict, clear lines are held in high esteem here.
The cosmic lattice Mondrian
Dutch artist Piet Mondrian was the founder of the group De Stijil (“Style”) and preached the expression of beauty in primary, generalized forms such as geometric lines and basic colors. Along with Kandinsky and Malevich it was the beginning of abstract art.
Every third Bauhaus design bears the stamp of this vision: cells of different sizes, painted over and empty, a red-blue-yellow palette.
Materials must reflect the true nature of objects and buildings, so that designers do not hide the design of the object or building, for the sake of aesthetics, steel takes pride of place, beams and metal parts act as an integral part of the design. Ornament and purely decorative details are most often not found in projects. The Bauhaus style denies deliberate embellishment.
Cantilever chair (Cesca)
A console chair with a seat that seemed to hang in the air was invented in 1928 by Marcel Breer. For the frame, he used steel tubes and gave the invention the diminutive name of the adopted daughter – “cheska”.
The Wassily Chair (Model B3)
It was created by Breuer in 1925-1926, when He headed a Cabinet-making workshop in the Bauhaus (Dessau period).
Inspired by the works of Vasily Kandinsky, Peter Koehler, a student at the Bauhaus school, creates an abstract cradle.
The legendary Grand Confort chair (AKA ” LC2»)
The splendor of the matte black leather and cold steel frame belongs to Le Corbusier’s imagination. You may have seen this chair in the series “Sherlock”, it is on it that the main character usually sits.
Products By Marianne Brandt
Marianne Brandt’s talent was fully manifested in some areas at once. She embodied in her work the main principles of the Bauhaus, combining craft with high artistic taste. Marianne made photo collages, drew, and was the first woman to work in metal.
The design of Brandt’s futuristic sets is reflected in modern products, her handwriting is guessed in the sharp spouts of teapots, triangles of napkin stands, and black cubes of electronic clocks.
Red and blue Rietveld chair
Rood-blauwe stoel, the Dutch designer Gerrit Gerrit Rietveld designed in 1918. Rietveld was part of the same group of artists as Mondrian – “Style”, hence the metal grid – frame and the colors familiar from Mondrian’s designs.